What are the advantages of lithium-ion batteries over Nickel Metal Hydride
Lithium-ion batteries provide a number of advantages over NiMH (and other batteries), including:
- Higher voltage (need fewer cells)
- Lower weight
- Smaller volume (size of pack)
- Greater power and performance – NiMH has limitations in meeting the power and energy density demands of Hybrid Electric Vehicles
- Longer life
- Able to withstand a wider range of temperatures
- Less environmental impact
How soon is it expected that lithium-ion batteries will replace NiMH batteries in the automotive industry?
All post-2010 XEV applications (HEV’s, PHEV’s, EREV’s and BEV’s) are using Lithium-ion batteries. The only exception is manufacturers with substantial investments in Ni-MH manufacturing infrastructure.
Are lithium-ion batteries cost comparable to NiMH?
Lithium-ion batteries are more cost-effective than NiMH and other battery alternatives for most XEV applications when consideration is given to the increased power and energy density and extended life.
Do lithium-ion batteries have applications other than automotive?
Indeed they do. Lithium-ion batteries of smaller sizes are currently and predominantly used in cell phones, laptops, iPods, power tools, and more. Other larger lithium-ion batteries are used in electric scooters, electric bicycles, electric wheelchairs, as well as military and commercial vehicles.
In addition, certain types of Lithium-ion batteries are also proving to be the preferred alternative for different types of stationary energy storage (ESS) application such grid-sufficient, uninterruptable power supplies (UPS), etc.
Why are you targeting Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)?
Because HEVs need light, small, high power batteries, and Lithium-ion batteries are proving to be the most cost effective solution.
Where are your manufacturing locations?
LG Chem has three manufacturing locations dedicated to the production of Lithium-ion batteries: two in Korea and one in China. We now also have a manufacturing facility in Holland, Michigan that is expected to begin production in 3Q 2013.
What is the environmental impact of lithium-ion batteries versus NiMH?
Lithium-ion cells use chemistries that are environmentally more benign than chemistries typically used in NiMH batteries.
Why are LG Chem/LGCPI lithium-ion batteries superior in design and performance to the small format cells used for consumer products?
LG Chem/LGCPI has developed unique features to ensure safe, affordable and optimal performance at extreme conditions.
- LG Chem/LGCPI’s unique safety-reinforced separator (SRS) has been developed to minimize potential thermal runaway due to an internal short. At higher temperatures the separator remains functional.
- LG Chem/LGCPI’s unique package design ensures a low cost, high quality and reliable cell that is designed for fail-safe performance.
- LG Chem/LGCPI is experienced in the design and production of numerous lithium-ion chemistries. For the hybrid electric vehicles market, LG Chem/LGCPI has developed a customized cathode and anode chemistry that optimizes performance at extreme conditions without sacrificing battery life.
What is the long-term outlook for the supply of Lithium?
As hybrid electric vehicles (HEV’s) are gaining momentum in the automotive marketplace, questions have recently been raised about the long-term supply availability of Lithium to support the mass production of lithium-ion batteries.
Following is a relatively straightforward and deliberately simplified analysis:
A 25 kW battery pack will typically be adequate to meet the needs of a full/strong hybrid as indicated in the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) requirements. The USABC states usable energy requirement to be 0.3 kWh typically over a 20 percent SOC (state of charge) window that would make the total energy content of such a pack approximately 1.5 kWh. A plug-in type HEV (PHEV) could require an eight to ten kWh battery pack whereas a mild hybrid would require significantly less compared to the full/strong HEV. A reasonable conversion factor for lithium-ion batteries is 0.14 kg of Lithium per 1 kWh of electrical energy.
Based on current assessments of global Lithium supply of approximately seven billion kg, this analysis implies that available Lithium can support a production of approximately 33 billion strong/full HEV’s. It should be noted that the global annual production of all vehicles is currently at approximately 70 million and the total population of vehicles on the road today is approximately 800 million.
LG Chem/LGCPI first manufactured lithium-ion batteries in 1998. By establishing a robust mass production system, LG Chem/LGCPI now supplies cells to major international companies.
With increased investments and leading-edge technology, LG Chem/LGCPI has become one of the world’s principal battery manufacturers for the HEV, PHEV, and EV industries.
LG Chem/LGCPI’s lithium-ion battery cells provide several advantages over the competition, including:
- Safety Reinforced Separator
- “Mixed Cathode” Chemistry
- Safer Packaging
Better thermal performance (Thin, Flat Package)
Higher reliability (Fewer parts, simpler manufacturing)
Improved Total Cost (Packaging, Chemistry)
- Power Density
- Energy Density
- Calendar and Cycle Life